The clinical cases aim to present the real, typical clinical scenarios and detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient with the profile by making a relevant role in medical education by providing a structure for case-based learning.
Commonly Case Studies in Cardiovascular Medicine, should detail a specific medical case, broadcasting the background of the patient. Discussions and investigations are undertaken in order to determine a diagnosis or differentiate between possible diagnoses and should indicate the type of treatment the patient underwent as a result. On the other side we can determine that Case Study is a beneficial and explanatory part of every physician's medical education.
Lebanese Society of Cardiology | The Heart foundation of Malaysia | The Japanese Society of Hypertension | American Society for Preventive Cardiology | American Society of Echocardiography |
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart / blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (Heart attack) show casing a wide range of conditions, including blood vessel diseases such as coronary artery disease, problems with (arrhythmias) and congenital heart defects, Heart and blood vessel disease also called heart disease which includes infinite problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death and major contributors to medical utilization and disability. There is a striking age related rise in mortality due to heart diseases such that the wide majority of deaths due to heart disease occur in population age 65 and older. or delay clinical events. Nutrition is directly involved in major risk factors for coronary heart disease. High salts increase blood pressure and the increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
American Society for Preventive Cardiology | American Society of Echocardiography | American Society of Hypertension | Brazilian Society of Hypertension | Canadian Cardiovascular Society |
Nursing Care is a profession which deals with the study of a different type in which a patient care can be done in order to overcome the illness and maintain a good health condition. Cardiac nurses are critical in the fight against heart disease and are needed not just for patient’s care but also to promote healthy lifestyle choices. Cardiovascular attendants must have particular abilities including electrocardiogram observing, defibrillation and drug organization by nonstop intravenous trickle. Cardiac nurses help us to treat conditions such as angina, coronary artery disease, heart failure, Heart attack , cardiac dysrhythmia, cardiomyopathy under the guidance of a cardiologist. Nursing is quite discrete from other health cares and it is present in all over the world. Cardiac Nurses treat patients suffering from heart diseases, heart attacks, and other cardiovascular health issues.
Argentine Society of Cardiology | Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology | Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society | The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation | Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society |
Cardiovascular surgery / Cardiac surgery is a surgery on the heart or great vessels which is carried by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat ischemic Heart disease to correct congenital heart disease or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes including atherosclerosis, endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease. It also includes heart transplantation. The advancement of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques has greatly deduced the mortality rates of these procedures. At present the repairs of congenital heart defects are currently estimated to have 4–6% mortality rates. Traditional heart surgery also called as open heart surgery which is done by opening the chest wall to operate the heart. A major effect with cardiac surgery is neurological damage. Another type of heart surgery is known as beating heart surgery or off pump.
Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging | The American Society for Preventive Cardiology |American Society of Nuclear Cardiology |American Heart Association | American Stroke Association |
Electrocardiography (EKG) and Echocardiography (ECG) are in a way similar test which are painless, non invasive tests used for the evaluation and functioning of the heart. Both ECG/EKG tests do not require initial preparation and do not carry any risks for the patient. Echocardiogram is also known as an ultrasound scan of the heart, sonar of the heart or an echo. An ECG helps to diagnose and monitor specific heart conditions by checking the structure of the heart and surrounding blood vessels, interpreting how blood flows through them and assessing the pumping chambers of the heart. Abnormalities can often be seen on an ECG like an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the heart (ischemia), and previous heart attack (myocardial infarction), excessive thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart's muscular walls.
Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions | Arizona Society of Echocardiography | Brazilian Society of Cardiology | Heart Failure Society of America | Canadian Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation |
Interventional cardiology is done to diagnose heart and vascular problems. It is usually helps us avoid surgery with treatments like valve repair or replacement or angioplasty. Interventional cardiology is a non-surgical option which uses a catheter: a small, flexible tube to repair weakened or damaged vessels, narrowed arteries, or other affected parts of the heart structure. Interventional cardiologists are given additional training to access your heart through various arteries and veins using thin tubes called catheters. A cardiac technician supervises and performs to interprets medical images to diagnose diseases of the heart such as heart disease, defects in the size and shape of the heart and leaky heart valves. They also use imaging techniques such as X-rays, ultrasound (echocardiograms), CT scans and MRI scans. These tests are used to screen for heart disease, determine what is causing your symptoms and monitor your heart and find out if your treatment is working.
European Society of Cardiology | British Cardiovascular Society | World Heart Federation | British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation | World Heart Failure Society |
Pediatric Cardiology is responsible for the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, performing diagnostic tests such as electrophysiology studies, cardiac catheterizations and echocardiograms. The ongoing number of neonates with congenital heart defects referred to the neonatal intensive care unit reflects the increasing awareness that the cardio defects show their presence. Chest radiography and Echocardiography rarely assist in the neonatal diagnosis. Pericardial radiation, heart tamponade, constrictive pericarditis and intense pericarditis are the other additional pericardial illnesses that can display clinically as.
Geriatric cardiology signs to the cardiovascular consideration of patients 65 years old or more established. The geriatric populace is additionally separated into elderly (between ages 75- 84 years) and elderly (85 years old or more), with numbers achieving 40 million and 13 million individuals, individually. As anyone might expect, an on-going review found that very nearly 60% of patients who visited cardiologists in the course of the most recent year would be viewed as geriatric based on age alone.
Austrian Heart Foundation | Austrian Society of Cardiology | Philippine Heart Association | Belgian Society of Cardiology | Spanish Society of Cardiology | British Cardiac Society | International Academy of Cardiology | British Heart Foundation |
Molecular cardiology is a newly developed technological method in the field of cardiology that aims to administer molecular and biological methods for the diagnosis, prevention, mechanical investigation, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiologists focus on molecular mechanisms of signal transduction in cardiomyocytes. Specifically, they investigate modulators of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the Calcineurin pathway applying molecular biology methodology including cell culture, transgenic and knock-out models and protein biochemistry. This innovation has changed theoretical thinking of cardiovascular development, disease etiology and pathophysiology.
British Hypertension Society | British Junior Cardiologists Association | Croatian Cardiac Society | European Cardiology Congress | European Society of Cardiology | British cardiology society | Luxembourg Society of Cardiology | British Heart Failure Society |
Hypertension is a condition in which the long term flow of the blood against the artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems such as heart disease. The more blood the heart pumps and the narrower the arteries, the higher will be the blood pressure.
Blood pressure (hypertension) usually does not have any symptoms. Fortunately, without knowing the symptoms damage to blood vessels and the heart continues and can be detected. Increased blood pressure which is uncontrollable promotes the risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. In rare cases, dangerously high blood pressure can cause severe headaches, confusion, and shortness of breath, chest pain, or nosebleeds. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease, kidney failure, and stroke and eye problems.
Association of Cardiologists of Bosnia & Herzegovina | British Heart Foundation | Spanish Heart Foundation | Austrian Heart Foundation | Belorussian Scientific Society of Cardiologists | Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology
The scientific goal of this session is to understand the underlying causes and physiology of diabetes, obesity and associated metabolic diseases, as well as analyzing and safe interventions and therapeutics. It even includes expertise in the CNS that controls appetite and energy expenditure, adipose tissue function and pancreas function.
Cardiometabolic disorders are the circumstances associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The morbidity and mortality severity increased clinical attention to know the risk factors of associated individuals to these cardiovascular disorders. Heart disease and stroke are due to the Obesity factors. But it damages more than just the circulatory system. It even causes gallstones, osteoarthritis and respiratory problems. Obesity can also lead to heart failure, Stroke and coronary heart disease.
Elsevier Society Partners in Cardiology | Cardiac Society of Australia & New Zealand | Russian Society of Cardiology | The Japanese Heart Failure Society | Japanese Society of Echocardiography | The World Society of Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgeons |
Stem cell research and Regenerative medicine have an outstanding potential to revolutionize the treatment of cardiac disease. The damaged tissue after a heart attack has a limited ability to regenerate. Cell therapy counteracts reverse ventricular remodeling and the substrate of heart failure, arrhythmias following myocardial infarction is the new therapeutic approach. cardiac stem cells have the potential to differentiate into all the cells that make up the heart, including heart muscle cells, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, mature cells that are manipulated back to a stem cell state that can be used to create new heart cells. The drawback is that the heart cells made with stem cells resemble the heart cells of an infant, rather than adult heart cells. The new heart cells must mature and then be able to survive within the constantly beating environment of the heart for the survival.
Asian Pacific Society of Hypertension | Association of Cardiologists of Kazakhstan | Australian Cardiovascular Health and Rehabilitation Association | Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia | Chinese Society of Cardiology |
Studies of Nuclear cardiology, Cardiac CT & cardiac MRI have become the powerful tools for diagnosis, risk assessment and guiding management of selected patients with details of suspected cardiac disease. In the present health scenarios, imaging looks into the combined considerations of improving outcomes and containing costs. Nuclear Cardiology has played a vital role in establishing the diagnosis of heart disease and in the assessment of disease extent and the prediction of outcomes in the setting of coronary artery disease.
A Cardiac CT scan is a painless imaging test performed using x rays to take many detailed pictures of heart and blood vessels. A multi detector CT is a very fast type of CT scanner that is used to interpret high-quality pictures of the beating heart and can detect calcium or blockages in the coronary arteries. The information obtained can help to evaluate the increased risk of heart attack.
The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) | Association of Pediatric Cardiology | Cardiological Society of India | Association of Black Cardiologists | Algerian Society of Hypertension |
Cardiovascular Pharmacology is the study of drug action which interacts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ or organism. The interactions affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. It also deals in how drugs influence the heart and vascular system and those parts of the nervous and endocrine systems that participate in regulating cardiovascular function.
Chemotherapy may be the reason for cardiovascular toxicology or due to the medication for the treatment of heart diseases. Heavy metals intake or incorrectly administered drug like bupivacaine may also be reason for the same. The toxic exposures result in alterations in biochemical pathways, defects in cellular structure and function and pathogenesis of the affected cardiovascular system.
Interventional Cardiovascular Society of Malaysia | Israeli Cardiology and Critical Care Nursing Society | Japanese Society of Thoracic Radiology | Korean Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Kyrgyz Society of Cardiology |
Cardiac regeneration medicine is an best exciting, fast paced field of research that aims to restore the function of diseased and damaged cardiovascular cells through innovative methods, such as gene therapy or stem cell. Heart and vascular disease are the main cause of death in the world. Stem cells are an exciting and potential revolutionary approach in the fields of drug development and therapy. Cardiac regeneration is the process of undifferentiated cells that have the ability to restore function to damaged tissue by renewing cell growth in heart cells affected by heart disease or a rapidly advancing and controversial field of research. Heart regeneration is the strategy in which the injection of exogenous cells into the affected area of the heart occurs.
American Society of Hypertension | Brazilian Society of Hypertension | Canadian Cardiovascular Society | Argentine Society of Cardiology | Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology | Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society |
Neuroradiology defines the physiologic, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological interactions of the cardiovascular and CNS systems. The mechanisms of stress on the heart are studied in terms of the heart's interactions with both the peripheral nervous system and the CNS. The Heart Brain communications has proved invaluable to interdisciplinary fields of cardiac and neurological diseases. Variations in the neural signals give evidence that a problematic affect is present regarding physiologic regulation and help the concerned physician to determine the condition. Neuro Cardiology highlights the present session about cardiac afferent mechanisms which is responsible for cardiovascular reflexes as well as the efferent motor neurons. A great deal of research has been going on to delineate the neuro-anatomical and functional organization of the autonomic nervous system where the functions of the heart are controlled
The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation | Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society | Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging | The American Society for Preventive Cardiology |American Society of Nuclear Cardiology |
Cardiac patients may need multiple doses of medications. Every individual presents a different symptom or contributing factor and comes with its own instructions and rules. It's critical that people with heart failure or cardiac arrest take their medications exactly as directed by their healthcare provider to attain the benefits. Timely use of these drugs has increased the life span and also improved the heart’s function. The goal of using emergency drugs and medications is to prevent the patient from deteriorating to an un expected arrest situation.
Medicines like Anticoagulants, Antiplatelet medications, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers (called ARBs), Beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Digoxin, Diuretics prevent from harmful clots forming in the blood vessels to avoid further serious complications.
American Heart Association | American Stroke Association | Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions | Arizona Society of Echocardiography | Brazilian Society of Cardiology |
Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities is the condition where your heart beats too fast or slow or irregularly. This is also called an arrhythmia. Heart is a system of complex valves, nodes and chambers that control the process of the blood flow. If the usual process of this vital system is disrupted, damaged, or compromised, it can change the heart beat patterns.
Arrhythmias causes no symptoms, or the patient may feel fluttering pain or discomfort or pounding in the chest. Atrial Fibrillation (Afib) is the most common type of cardiac rhythm disturbance observed all over. It can be characterized as a fast, irregular rhythm in which single muscle fibers in the heart twitch or contract in a unorganized way. Ventricular fibrillation is a type of abnormal rhythm where the heart stop beating and cause cardiac arrest.
Heart Failure Society of America | Canadian Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation | European Society of Cardiology | British Cardiovascular Society | World Heart Federation |
Vascular Biology is a field with a wide range of study including vascular function, structure, growth as well as development. Perturbations of vascular function be there involved in various pathophysiological states, inflammation, aging, neoplasia, metabolic disorders pulmonary diseases, neurological diseases and also hypertension.
The Medical Susceptibility of the field of vascular Biology manages the arteries, veins, and lymphatic framework by insignificantly utilizing the catheter techniques, medical procedures and restorative treatments. This field does exclude treating heart and cerebrum. Endarterectomy strategy is the procedure were peripheral vascular surgery procedures can be executed with a framework to plaque improvement inside the blocked veins.
British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation | World Heart Failure Society | Austrian Heart Foundation | Austrian Society of Cardiology | Philippine Heart Association | Belgian Society of Cardiology | Spanish Society of Cardiology |
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) devices help heart beat more efficiently and monitor the health condition. This Heart device delivers small amounts of electrical energy to the heart through the leads. This makes the restoration of the normal heart beats, causing both ventricles to pump simultaneously and efficiently like a fist closing normally again. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a new treatment option for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that involves the implantation of a biventricular pacemaker (BVP) capable of stimulating both ventricles simultaneously. Combined CRT/ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator) is also one of the newly developed heart device that offer the additional capability of detecting and treating potentially serious arrhythmias associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is a combination of CRT.
British Cardiac Society | International Academy of Cardiology | British Heart Foundation | British Hypertension Society | British Junior Cardiologists Association | Croatian Cardiac Society |
Present Cardiology research focuses on the novel research in cardiology where the new innovative methods that are emerging in the field of cardiology. A brief explanation on Cardiac nursing and Interventional cardiology, thrombolytic therapy and Cardiac rehabilitation. Advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, digital health technology and mobile devices as a means to prevent and treat heart disease will showcase the transformation of the future cardiovascular care. According to Digital health the use of digital information, data and communication technologies to collect, share and analyze health information to improve patient health and health care delivery makes a great impact in the cardiological studies. Mobile health is one of the subsets of digital health that focuses on the use of mobile and wearable devices and software applications in the future cardiological research.
European Cardiology Congress | European Society of Cardiology | British cardiology society | Luxembourg Society of Cardiology | British Heart Failure Society | Association of Cardiologists of Bosnia & Herzegovina |