Stem cell research and Regenerative medicine have an outstanding potential to revolutionize the treatment of cardiac disease. The damaged tissue after a heart attack has a limited ability to regenerate. Cell therapy counteracts reverse ventricular remodeling and the substrate of heart failure, arrhythmias following myocardial infarction is the new therapeutic approach. Ongoing drug therapies slow the progression of heart failure but are not curative and heart transplants can only be offered to a very limited number of patients. Cardiac stem cells have the potential to differentiate into all the cells that make up the heart, including heart muscle cells, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, mature cells that are manipulated back to a stem cell state that can be used to create new heart cells. The drawback is that the heart cells made with stem cells resemble the heart cells of an infant, rather than adult heart cells. The new heart cells must mature and then be able to survive within the constantly beating environment of the heart for the survival.
Advantageous cell tissue regeneration combines a complex cellular and molecular advent setting that includes stem cell grafting and differentiation, secretion of anti-inflammatory and angiogenic mediators, and proliferation of endogenous cardiac stem cells. Recent therapeutic approaches involve adipose, bone marrow, and heart derived stem cells, mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and combinations of cells. Recent clinical trials show mesenchymal stem cells and cardiac derived stem cells to be effective in reducing infarct size and improving the movement of regional walls.
Related Societies: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) | Association of Pediatric Cardiology | Cardiological Society of India | Association of Black Cardiologists | Algerian Society of Hypertension | Interventional Cardiovascular Society of Malaysia